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The 7#11 is similar to a standard dominant 7 chord, but has a #11 (the same tone as a #4) added near the top of the voicing. It may also have a 9 or 13 added
Standard scale choice
Use the 'lydian dominant' scale, which also gets described as the 4th mode of the ascending melodic minor: 1 2 3 #4 5 6 b7
If you take the 2, #4 and b7 degrees of the scale, you get an augmented triad -- a 'symmetrical' triad where each note is a major third from its neighbours. Playing licks based on these three notes will produce some cool sounds. John Scofield likes this option.
Also, you can think of any melodic minor scale as the result of combining a minor arpeggio built on the root, and a dominant 9 arpeggio built on the fifth. (Since this is the 4th mode of the scale, that translates into a minor triad built on note 5 of the mode, and a dominant 9 built on note 2 - eg. Dm and A9 over G7#11). Alternating lines from each of these arpeggios sounds hip.